Leslie G. Valiant of Harvard University won the 2010 Turing Award for his contributions to the world of computing. These five notable members of the ACM also received the Turing Award for various contributions from 1969 to 1988. Their individual contributions laid the foundations for computer systems as they are known today and allow for further research and innovations.

The Turing award is named for British mathematician Alan M. Turing. It also grants the recipient a US\$250,000 prize with financial support provided by Google and Intel. The award is presented at the annual ACM awards banquet in June.

Marvin Minsky – 1969

“Old Man Minsky” founded the MIT artificial intelligence lab, and he pioneered the field of building computer programs that learn and evolve.

He holds a BA in Mathematics from Harvard (1950) and a Ph.D. in the same field from Princeton (1954). He has been on the MIT faculty since 1958. He was the Toshiba Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, and Professor of electrical engineering and computer science, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, when he won the Turing Award according to the ACM’s website.

He patented the first head-mounted graphical display (1963), the confocal scanning microscope (a predecessor to today’s widely used confocal laser scanning microscope), and, along with Seymour Papert, the first Logo “turtle.” Minsky also built, in 1951, the first randomly wired neural network-learning machine, SNARC, according to the ACM.

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Edsger Dijkstra – 1972

This Dutch scientist, who died in 2002, won a Turing for his work in the creation of the ALGOL programming language.

Dijkstra’s chief interest was formal verification. The prevailing opinion at the time was that one should first write a program and then provide a mathematical proof of correctness. Dijkstra objected, declaring that the resulting proofs were long and cumbersome, and that the proof gave no insight as to how the program was developed.

An alternative method is program derivation, to “develop proof and program hand in hand.” One starts with a mathematical specification of what a program is supposed to do and applies mathematical transformations to the specification until it is turned into a program that can be executed. The resulting program is then known to be correct by construction.